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The E-test is used for testing the circuit board for short circuits or open connections (compared to the netlist). For the E-test, two methods are common:

Flying Probe
For prototypes and small series of bare circuit boards. Freely programmable testing needles check the predefined measurement points directly on traces, pads, pins and test pads for connection errors. The measurement points are scanned sequentially. This process saves the adapter construction, thus reducing the cost for the customer.
PCB flying probe needle
Test adapter
With a test adapter, medium and large series of assembled or bare circuit boards  are tested for shorts and connection errors. Each PCB side to be tested must have its own adapter. With resilient needles it contacts all the points which are to be electrically tested, simultaneously.
PCB fixture test adapter

see also:Multi-CB - Quality Control - E-Test

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