Item: Thermal pad
A thermal pad is a special solder pad on the circuit board. This pad is connected to the surrounding copper pour only with thin bridges due to thermal reasons. This prevents an outflow of heat to the attached copper surface while soldering (the component), and therefore negative effects to the soldering process.
If low heat transfer resistance is required (power electronics), heat traps need to be customised or even omitted as they can act as a fuse.